Saturday, December 25, 2004

Brad Loyet with his micro-sprint race car at Greenscape Gardens. Bradley won first place that evening at Tri-City Speedway in Granite City, Ill. Bradley was undefeated in Tri City in 2004 with three wins. Bradley's season consisted of 12 first place wins and is now racing in USAC. The Outlaws better watch out, SPEEDRACER IS ON THEIR HEELS. Brad is heading to the Tulsa Chili Bowl next weekend. Good luck to the Loyet Motorsports Team, Joe & Brad Loyet.
Check out for additional stats.

Greenscape Gardens
Gargoyle Lounge playing at the Greenscape Gardens 11th Annual Memorial Day Sale and BBQ...May 31, 2004. Two different bands on one weekend at the No other garden centre in the world can boost some of these marketing claims. Thanks to Bob and Griff for another outstanding, top notch performance including Margaritaville.

Greenscape Gardens
Mark Riordan playing Jimmy Buffett tunes at the Greenscape Gardens 11th annual Memorial Day Weekend Sale & BBQ in 2004.

Greenscape Gardens



Christmas at Fort Mandan. The enlisted men all fire off three volleys of gunfire in the morning, waking up the captains. Captain Clark authorizes a round of rum and instructs that the cannon be fired at the raising of the flag. Some of the men go out and hunt for the day but most stay at the camp at celebrate until late in the evening.



A tree is worth $196,250.00 according to professor T.M. Das of the University of Calcutta. A tree living for 50 years will generate $31,250 worth of oxygen, provide $62,000 worth of air pollution control, increase soil fertility and control soil erosion control to the tune of $31,250, recycle $37,500 worth of water and provide home for animals worth $31,250. This figure does not include the value of the fruits, lumber or beauty derived from trees. Just another sensible reason to care for our landscape and trees.



Healthy, dense lawns absorb rainfall six times more effectively than a wheat field and four times better than a hayfield. Sodded lawns can absorb 10 to 12 times more water than seeded lawns, even after two years of growth, thus preventing runoff and erosion.



With the cold days of winter now upon us, the challenge of caring for our indoor plants multiplies. Proper care of houseplants helps increase satisfaction and enjoyment from them and extends the blooming period of many flowering plants.

Most potted plants have been grown in greenhouses under ideal conditions. When they are placed in home environments designed for people, not plants, they need good care to adjust to the new environment.


Houseplants are killed more often by improper watering than by any other single factor. No general schedule can be used for watering all houseplants. Size of plant, pot, light, temperature, humidity and other conditions influence the speed of the plant drying out.

When to water

In general, flowering plants need more water than foliage plants of the same size. Never water any plant unless it needs it. Soil kept either too wet or too dry causes plant roots to die, which leads to poor growth or death of the plant. Never allow plants to wilt, and never allow them to stand in water for long periods of time. Many people rely on moisture meters to take the guess work out of watering.

Learn to gauge the moisture content of the soil by its color and feel. As the soil surface dries it becomes lighter. Under continued drying, the soil begins to crack and pull away from the sides of the pot. When severe drying occurs, some damage already will have been done to the roots. Soil kept too moist becomes sticky and slimy, thus inviting root rots and other disease problems.

How to water

Plants may be watered from either the top or the bottom of the pot. If you prefer watering from the top, use a watering can with a small spout and keep as much water off the foliage as possible. Each time, wet the entire soil mass, not just the top inch. Add water until it comes through the drainage hole in the bottom of the pot. Discard water that remains beneath the pot one hour after watering.

Watering from the bottom ensures thorough wetting of the soil mass. Place the pot in a pan or saucer filled with water, or dunk the pot in a bucket of deep water (just below the rim of the pot). When the top of the soil becomes moist, the entire soil ball should be wet. Remove the pot, allow it to drain and return it to the saucer.

Salts may form a white accumulation on the soil surface if plants are watered regularly from the bottom. Occasional watering from the top helps wash out the salts. Don't allow the soil to reabsorb any water that has been run through the soil to leach out salts. Surface salt accumulation may become too heavy to remove in this way. When this happens, scrape off the surface soil and replace it with fresh soil. Try not to injure plant roots.


Potted plants should always have good drainage. Occasionally the drainage hole may become clogged by roots. Check it by pushing a finger, stick or pencil into it. Even though drainage from the pot may be good, pot coverings may hold water. Pots wrapped in waterproof foil or placed in deep planters should be checked occasionally for standing water.

Plants with "wet feet" soon look sick — leaves yellow or drop, flowers collapse and normally healthy white roots turn brown. Any or all of these can result from stagnation of the water, too little soil oxygen and development of diseases which rot the roots.


Improper light intensity ranks close to improper watering as a frequent cause for failure with houseplants. A plant in proper light is better able to withstand the high temperature and low humidity of many homes. The amount of light necessary for good growth varies with different types of plants.

Flowering plants

All flowering plants need moderately bright light. Plants kept continuously in poor light will have spindly shoots, few flowers, yellow foliage, poor flower color and often little or no growth.
South, east or west windows are excellent for most flowering potted plants, with the possible exception of African Violets and related plants, which prefer a north window. Plants in bloom should be kept out of direct sunlight since the flowers will heat excessively and collapse more quickly.

Light in the average room, away from windows, is not bright enough for most flowering plants, even when ceiling fixtures are kept on.
Fluorescent lights located fairly close to houseplants will improve growth when plants cannot be placed close to windows. When artificial lights are used, place them about one foot above the top of the plant, and keep them on for about 16 hours each day. Extra fertilizer, water or repotting are not cures for insufficient light.

Foliage plants

Foliage plants are generally divided into those suitable for low light areas, moderate light areas and high light areas. Only a few plants can tolerate dimly lit room interiors. Light at a north window, daylight with no direct sun or sunlight diffused through a lightweight curtain are suitable for most foliage plants. Plants that require full sunlight should be put in a south window.

Abrupt change from a location in low light to one in bright light may be damaging. Plants can become acclimated to one location. Leaves gradually face toward light for maximum light absorption, especially in low light areas. Moving the plant disrupts this orientation, and light is not used as efficiently for a period of time.
This is especially true of large plants.

Moving abruptly to more intense light also results in bleaching or burning of foliage, especially in direct sun. Any changes should be made gradually. Many plants can be kept from getting one-sided by turning them once a week.


Proper temperatures for plants are often hard to find in the house. A hot, dry atmosphere shortens the life of flowers. Flowering potted plants should receive temperatures from 65 to 75 degrees F in the day and 55 to 60 degrees F at night. To maximize flowering potted plants in the home, move them to a cool spot at night.
Foliage plants are more tolerant of high temperatures, but they thrive at temperatures between 65 and 70 degrees.

In winter, plants placed close to a window may have cooler temperatures than those elsewhere in the house. If the drapes are drawn behind these plants at night, the window temperature may be too cool. On cold nights, check temperatures close to windows. Some tropical foliage plants can be injured at temperatures below 40 degrees F.

Do not put plants at windows that have hot air registers or radiators directly below them. Hot air blowing on the plants often causes leaves to brown on the edges and occasionally to drop or die.


Air in most modern homes is extremely dry during the winter. A furnace or room humidifier can help plant growth. Watertight trays placed beneath the plants and filled with constantly moist sand or gravel help increase humidity around the plants. Pots must be placed on, not in, the wet sand or gravel.

Misting over the leaves daily helps a plant overcome the stress of low humidity. Plants needing constant high humidity such as orchids or gardenias are best kept in kitchens or bathrooms where humidity often runs higher. A relative humidity between 40 and 60 percent is best for most plants but is difficult to attain in the house.


Newly purchased plants have been well fertilized in the greenhouse. They seldom need additional fertilizer for a few weeks. If plants are to be discarded after flowering, there will be no benefit from fertilizing. Plants kept in the home should be put on a regular fertilization program.

When to fertilize

Fertilizing once a month is usually adequate for most houseplants that are producing new growth or flowers. During midwinter (December, January) when no new growth is apparent, fertilizer should be withheld.

Do not use fertilizer to stimulate new growth on a plant located in poor growing conditions. Lack of growth is more often due to improper light or watering than to nutritional deficiencies. In such cases adding fertilizer may actually cause additional injury.

Drop of lower leaves, overall yellow-green color or weak growth may indicate a need for fertilization. Since these same symptoms may result from poor light or overwatering, evaluate all conditions before fertilizing more than normal.

Kind of fertilizers

Water soluble, complete fertilizers have been formulated for houseplants and are available at garden centers. They are easy to use. Be sure to follow directions carefully. Do not apply more than directed. The roots of potted plants are quite restricted and easily burned by the application of too much fertilizer at one time.

Never apply liquid fertilizers to wilted plants. Water the plants first and apply fertilizer after the plants have recovered and the soil has dried slightly.

If soluble fertilizers such as 20-20-20 are available, these may also be used for fertilizing houseplants. Make a solution by mixing 1-1/2 teaspoons of this material in one gallon of water.

Organic fertilizers can also be used for houseplants, but either organic or inorganic fertilizers or a combination of both will be satisfactory sources of nutrients.

Fertilizers that release nutrients slowly or over a long time period require less frequent application than liquid forms. They are available in beads, pills, spikes and other forms. Never exceed amounts suggested by the manufacturer's directions.


Plants just brought home from the greenhouse seldom need immediate repotting. Many will not require potting for some time. A newly acquired plant must make adjustments to its new environment, and repotting immediately puts added strain on the plant.

When a plant is potbound (roots are too extensive for the pot) it will require frequent watering and produces poor growth. It is time for repotting.

A good potting mixture for most houseplants consists of a blend of three parts sphagnum peat, one part vermiculite and one part perlite. Many commercially available "peat-lite" mixes are ideal for houseplants. It is wise to avoid the addition of soil to a potting medium, as this often leads to poor drainage, overwatering and root diseases.

Acid-loving plants such as azaleas and gardenias should have at least 50 percent peat moss or other organic material in the soil mixture. With good care, these plants can be grown successfully in peat moss with no soil added.

When repotting, avoid excessive damage to the root system. Firm the soil gently around the root ball, but do not press so hard that the soil becomes compacted.

Allow enough space at the top of the pot so that water can be added easily. Water newly potted plants thoroughly, drain and do not water again until necessary.

Watch new plants carefully for development of insect or disease problems. If detected early, these problems often can be corrected easily before serious damage is done. If ignored or unseen, they may become difficult to control. The three most common and difficult houseplant pests are spider mites, scales and mealy bugs.

Summer care

During the summer, many houseplants can be revitalized if placed outdoors. Do not rush the plants outside too early in the spring. Late May is usually soon enough. Cool nights may injure some of them. Move the plants to a sheltered spot on a porch, beneath a tree or behind shrubs close to the house on a mild day, preferably when the weather is cloudy. After about one week of this adjustment, they may be moved to a more exposed but sheltered spot for the rest of the summer.

Plants with large leaves should be placed where they get good wind protection, since their leaves are easily torn. Potted plants dry rapidly outdoors. Frequency of watering can be reduced by submerging the pots in soil. This also keeps pots from falling over. Lift the pots occasionally to keep roots from growing out of the drainage hole in the pot and to prevent the plant from becoming established outdoors. Fertilize monthly, and check occasionally for insects or diseases that may attack them outdoors. Move them indoors by mid-September before cool weather returns.

Durable houseplants

Although all houseplants grow best with good care, there are a few that stand abuse more than others. Some of the most durable houseplants are snake plant (Sansevieria), heart-leaf philodendron (Philodendron cordatum), devil's ivy (Pothos), corn plant (Dracaena massangeana), Peperomia (Peperomia obtusifolia), cast iron plant (Aspidistra), dwarfpalm (Collinea), Chinese evergreen (Aglaonema) and spider plant (Chlorophytum).

Diagnosing cultural problems

Problems resulting from poor growing conditions in the home are difficult to diagnose. Often poor growth results from a combination of several unfavorable factors. The following list includes symptoms and causes of several cultural problems.

Lower leaves turn yellow and drop when touched
• Usually caused by overwatering.
• May occur when a new plant is moved from greenhouse to a low-light, low-humidity environment.

Yellowing and dropping of leaves at various levels on a plant
• Overwatering.
• Poor drainage.
• Tight soil.
• Chilling.
• Gas fumes.

Tips or margins of leaves appear burned, brown or both
• Too much fertilizer.
• Plant too dry for a short period of time.
• Plant exposed to too low temperature for short period.
• Use of softened water.

New leaves of plant are small
• Soil too dry for long periods.
• Poorly drained soil.
• Tight soil mixture.

New leaves with long internodes
• Not enough light.
• Temperature too high.

Leaves yellow or light green, weak growth
• Too much light.
• Poor root system — possibly from poor drainage, overwatering or tight soil.

Cause and effects:

** Night temperature
May fluctuate several degrees above or below listing. Day temperature should be 10 to 15 degrees higher.

** No direct sun
Low light intensity suitable. Direct sun may bleach or burn foliage.

** Filtered light
Needs good light but protection from long periods of bright sunlight.

** Bright light
Suitable for south window exposure close to or in direct sunlight.

** Thoroughly wet
Daily watering generally required. May stand in water for brief periods.

** Evenly moist
Frequent watering required, but must never stand in water. Soil surface should always feel moist.

** Drench, then dry
Soak root ball thoroughly, then allow the soil to become fairly dry before watering again. Do not allow the plant to wilt.

Cultural preferences of plants often grown in the home

• African violet, Saintpaulia
65 degrees at night, filtered light, evenly moist, easy to maintain
• Amaryllis
55 degrees at night, bright light, evenly moist, moderately easy to maintain
• Aluminum plant (related pileas)
65 degrees at night, filtered light, evenly moist, easy to maintain
• Arrowhead, Nephthytis
65 degrees at night, filtered light, evenly moist, easy to maintain
• Asparagus fern, Plumosus
50 degrees at night, filtered light, evenly moist, easy to maintain
• Australian tree fern
65 degrees at night, filtered light, thoroughly wet, challenging to maintain
• Begonia (many types)
65 degrees at night, filtered light, evenly moist, moderately easy to maintain
• Bromeliads
65 degrees at night, filtered light, evenly moist, moderately easy to maintain
• Burn plant, Aloe
55 degrees at night, bright light, drench, then dry, easy to maintain
• Cactus (desert types)
65 degrees at night, bright light, drench, then dry, easy to maintain
• Cast iron plant, Aspidistra
50 degrees at night, no direct sun, evenly moist, easy to maintain
• Chinese evergreen, Aglaonema
65 degrees at night, no direct sun, evenly moist, easy to maintain
• Christmas cactus
65 degrees at night, filtered light, evenly moist
• Christmas pepper
65 degrees at night, bright light, evenly moist
• Chrysanthemum
55 degrees at night, bright light, evenly moist
• Coleus
65 degrees at night, bright light, evenly moist
• Coral berry
65 degrees at night, filtered light, evenly moist, moderately easy to maintain
• Croton
65 degrees at night, bright light, evenly moist, moderately easy to maintain
• Cyclamen
50 degrees at night, filtered light, evenly moist, moderately easy to maintain
• Cymbidium orchid
55 degrees at night, filtered to bright light, evenly moist, moderately easy to maintain
• Dieffenbachia, Dumb cane
65 degrees at night, filtered light, drench, then dry, moderately easy to maintain
• Dracaena, Corn plant, Ti plant (related types)
65 degrees at night, filtered light, thoroughly wet, easy to maintain
• Dwarf orange, other citrus
55 degrees at night, bright light, drench, then dry, challenging to maintain
• Dwarf schefflera
65 degrees at night, bright light, evenly moist, moderately easy to maintain
• English ivy, Hedera
50 degrees at night, bright light, evenly moist, moderately easy to maintain
• Episcia, flame flower
65 degrees at night, filtered light, evenly moist, moderately easy to maintain
• Ferns (many types)
55 degrees at night, filtered light, evenly moist, moderately easy to maintain
• Fiddleleaf fig
65 degrees at night, filtered light, evenly moist, moderately easy to maintain
• Fuschia, Lady's eardrops
55 degrees at night, no direct sun, evenly moist, moderately easy to maintain
• Gardenia
65 degrees at night, bright light, evenly moist, challenging to maintain
• Gloxinia
65 degrees at night, filtered light, evenly moist, moderately easy to maintain
• Hibiscus
65 degrees at night, bright light, evenly moist, moderately easy to maintain
• Holiday cactus
65 degrees at night, filtered light, evenly moist, moderately easy to maintain
• Hydrangea
55 degrees at night, bright light, thoroughly wet, moderately easy to maintain
• Jade plant, Crassula
65 degrees at night, bright light, drench, then dry, moderately easy to maintain
• Kalanchoe
55 degrees at night, bright light, drench, then dry, moderately easy to maintain
• Maidenhair fern, Adiantum
65 degrees at night, no direct sun, thoroughly wet, moderately easy to maintain
• Moses-in-the-cradle, Rhoeo
55 degrees at night, filtered light, evenly moist, moderately easy to maintain
• Norfolk Island pine
55 degrees at night, filtered light, evenly moist, moderately easy to maintain
• Orchid (Cattleya types)
55 degrees at night, filtered light, drench, then dry, moderately easy to maintain
• Palms
65 degrees at night, no direct sun, evenly moist, moderately easy to maintain
• Peace lily, Spathiphyllum
65 degrees at night, filtered light, evenly moist, moderately easy to maintain
• Philodendron (many types)
65 degrees at night, filtered light, evenly moist, easy to maintain
• Poinsettia
65 degrees at night, bright light, drench, then dry, moderately easy to maintain
• Ponytail palm
65 degrees at night, filtered to bright light, evenly moist, moderately easy to maintain
• Pothos, devil's ivy
65 degrees at night, filtered light, drench, then dry, easy to maintain
• Rubber plant, Ficus
65 degrees at night, filtered light, evenly moist, moderately easy to maintain
• Sago palm, Cycad
55 degrees at night, filtered light, drench, then dry, moderately easy to maintain
• Schefflera, Umbrella tree
65 degrees at night, bright light, drench, then dry, moderately easy to maintain
• Sedums
55 degrees at night, bright light, drench, then dry, moderately easy to maintain
• Shrimp plant
55 degrees at night, bright light, drench, then dry, moderately easy to maintain
• Spider plant, Chlorophytum
50 degrees at night, filtered light, evenly moist, easy to maintain
• Split-leaf philodendron
65 degrees at night, filtered light, evenly moist, moderately easy to maintain
• Wandering Jew, Tradescantia
55 degrees at night, filtered light, evenly moist, easy to maintain
• Weeping fig, Ficus
65 degrees at night, bright light, evenly moist, moderately easy to maintain
• Zebra plant, Aphelandra
65 degrees at night, filtered light, evenly moist, moderately easy to maintain



An FAA inspector goes to check out Santa. They meet, and Santa shows him the fully loaded sleigh.

The inspector checks out the equipment, the load balance, etc. "Everything's looking good, Mr. Claus, so it's time we move on to the flight test."

They board the sleigh. "Why are you carrying a shotgun?," asks Santa.

The FAA inspector replies, "In this test, you're going to lose an engine on take off.


Mrs. Santa Claus was seeking a divorce from an incredulous judge who asked her to explain her marital problems.

"It's that happy, jolly stuff, all year long," she said. "It drives me crazy!"

"All year? Why, I thought Santa's work was only in the winter," said the judge.

"Sure, but in the summer he takes up gardening", Mrs. Santa replied, "and then it's hoe, hoe, hoe all over again!"


Friday, December 24, 2004

Light dusting of snow in the Dougherty Ferry gardens at Greenscape Gardens

Greenscape Gardens



The fence around Fort Mandan is finally completed. The captains present three visiting chiefs with pieces of sheepskin they had brought along to use as sponges. Captain Clark states that one of the sponges is as valuable as a fine horse.



A Gallup Survey reported 62% of all U.S. homeowners felt that investing in their lawns and landscaping was as good or better than other home improvements. The investment recovery rate is 100-200% for landscape improvements, compared to a deck or patio that will recover 40-70%. Attractive and well maintained landscaping adds 15% to a home’s value according to real estate sources.

Lawn areas quickly affect people’s moods by creating feelings of serenity, privacy, thoughtfulness or happiness. Its yearly cycles of growth and color change lift human spirits and link urban inhabitants with their countryside heritage.



1. Prune early in the life of the tree so pruning wounds are small. Control the growth of the plant early.

2. Begin your visual inspection at the top of the tree and work downward.

3. Identify the best leader and lateral branches before you begin pruning and remove defective branches before pruning for form.
4. Don’t worry about protecting pruning cuts. For aesthetics, you may feel better painting larger wounds with a neutral color tree paint. Evidence shows that it does not prevent or reduce decay.
5. Keep your tools sharp. Hand pruning shears with curved blades work best on young trees.
6. Make safety a number one priority. For high branches use a pole pruner. Major pruning on a large tree should be done by a professional arborist.
7. When you prune back to the trunk, prune to the collar of the branch. Otherwise, follow the rules of good pruning of larger limbs by cutting just outside the branch ridge and collar and at a slight down and outward angle (so as not to injure the collar). Do not leave a protruding stub.
8. When simply shortening a small branch, make the cut at a lateral bud or another lateral branch. Favor a bud that will produce a branch that will grow in a desired direction (usually outward). The cut should be sharp and clean, and made at a slight angle about ¼ inch beyond the bud.



Brown Spot Needle Blight of Scots Pine

This fungal disease of pine needles primarily affects Scots pines in St. Louis. Symptoms begin as yellow bands on the needles. These bands later become brown and are often resin soaked. Needles begin to brown from the tip back. This occurs most often on the lower branches of the tree. Browning becomes apparent in late summer. Severely affected trees may lose most of the needles on lower branches. Control is aimed at protecting young needles because mature needles are resistant to infection. Consult a tree care professional if this problem is noticed.


Why A Christmas Tree Is Better Than A MAN!

A Christmas tree doesn't care if you had other Christmas trees in the past.

Even a small Christmas tree gives satisfaction.

A Christmas tree always looks good, even with the lights on.

A Christmas tree has pretty balls.

A Christmas tree doesn't follow you around begging if you decide to choose a different one.

A Christmas tree stays up for 12 days and nights.

A Christmas tree is always happy with its size.

A Christmas tree doesn't care if you sit around in your pajamas and watch soap operas all day.

A Christmas tree doesn't get mad if you break its balls.

You can throw a Christmas tree out when it starts to get old and droopy.

You don't have to put up with a Christmas tree all year!



A small boy wrote to Santa Claus:

"Please send me a brother", the little boy requested very earnestly.

Santa wrote back:

"Send me your mother..."

Thursday, December 23, 2004

Another scene in the Great American Outhouse painted by Michael McKinney. You never know what you'll find in the Gardens.

Greenscape Gardens
Shade house area...azaleas, rhodies, hydrangas & jap. maples.

Greenscape Gardens
The Great American Outhouse indoor scene at Greenscape Gardens

Greenscape Gardens has the most unique outhouse of any garden center in St. Louis (maybe in the US. Don't be bashful...........check out the great outhouse art only at Greenscape Gardens!

Greenscape Gardens

Temperatures have risen with the highs of 20 F. Little Crow, his wife and son visit Fort Mandan. She prepares a special dish which is considered a treat by the Mandans consisting of a kettle of boiled squash, beans, corn and chokeberries.



Lawns became popular hundred of years ago when the early landscape architects included them in designs for royal estates and parks in England. They were meant to give people a pleasant environment in which to walk, picnic and play sports.

The concept of the lawns was carried to North America with the early settlers and given a uniquely New World twist---lawns were used to surround the homes of the common man. On this continent lawns were for everybody, not just the privileged few.

Some researchers estimate that as much as 50 million acres of lawn and sports turf area are being cared for by homeowners and professionals. In the U.S. alone, more than 100 million people operate more than 60 million lawn mowers. Why do they do it?

One reason has to do with aesthetics and a sense of design and proportion. A lawn provides a pleasant surrounding for a home. If all the property were landscaped with trees and gardens, nothing would stand out. There would be no focus. A lawn provides a soft backdrop of accents and points of visual interest.

Another reason is more practical. A lawn provides a clear view of roadways and walkways from the house. If a front yard was filled with a jumble of bushes and plants of different sizes and shapes, it would be easy for a prowler or an animal to lurk in this jungle unobserved.

Lawns provide a buffer zone to keep pesky insects away from the house. Farmers learned long ago that it’s a good idea to maintain a lawn between the house and the fields just for this reason.

A lawn has a cooling effect also. As water evaporates off a lawn, the surrounding air is cooled---reducing the load on a home’s air conditioning system. That saves energy and money.

A lawn’s root system is a kind of natural filter that screens out impurities. University research shows that acid rain is less acid after it leaches through a turf root zone.

Lawns play a role in replenishing the oxygen supply, preventing soil erosion, filtering dust and pollen from the air, abating noise pollution, and reducing glare.

All of the above are true. But lawns do more. They satisfy a psychological need. Lawns are relaxing. It must have something to do with the fact that a lawn is a wide, flat area of smooth, green color. Many people find it soothing to sit outside and just watch the lawn spread away from the house and blend into the neighbor’s green world. It calms the nerves after a hectic day.

Sometimes you hear people talk about gardening every square inch of their property, so there’s no more lawn to tend. But just imagine your neighborhood with every bit of ground sprouting zigzags of this and that. It would not be relaxing without the greenery of established turf.

Lawns are islands of serenity that makes life more pleasant.


Wednesday, December 22, 2004

Containerized shrubbery area at Greenscape Gardens.

Greenscape Gardens
Another park-like setting at Greenscape Gardens.

Greenscape Gardens
Grady Greenscape & Jill

Greenscape Gardens

Lewis & Clark buy two smallish horns from bighorn sheep, a species new to science that the Corps of Discovery hadn't seen yet.



Bird watching is one of America's favorite hobbies, and America's favorite bird is the hummingbird. Gems of beauty and marvels in flight, they are the only birds able to hover in position or fly backward - or for brief moments, even upside-down. As a general rule, the only hummingbird found east of the Mississippi River is the ruby-throat. Most hummers live three to five years.

Many hummingbirds weigh less than a penny. Because of their tiny size and rapid wing speed (up to 78 times per second during regular flight and up to 200 times per second during a display dive), hummingbirds have an extremely high rate of metabolism and will consume half their weight in sugar each day. If we required the same energy, we would have to eat up to 370 pounds of boiled potatoes or 130 pounds of bread....daily! Because of this need for regular and abundant food, the hummingbird will be a regular visitor to any food source that proves reliable. That is the value, and the joy, of a hummingbird feeder. The small effort required to maintain a hummingbird feeder is repaid with endless hours of delightful avian acrobatics by the "TOP GUN" of the bird world.

The Ruby-throated hummingbirds of the eastern half of the country will increase their body weight by 50% before starting their nonstop 500 mile flight across the Gulf of Mexico to their wintering rounds in Mexico.

A typical hummingbird nectar flower produces only one to three milligrams of nectar per day. A three gram hummer needs one half of its weight in sugar daily. The sugar concentration in the typical flower is 20-25%. Using two milligrams for nectar production in each flower and 25% for sugar concentration, we find that each flower produces .5 milligrams of sugar. This means that to meet its needs, the hummer must visit 3000 flowers. What a windfall to find a feeder, a giant flower with an endless supply of nectar!

When should feeders be put up in the spring? Usually two weeks before the birds are due to return, which is approximately the end of April in the St. Louis area. Placing your feeder in mid April will enhance attracting the hummingbirds to your yard. Remember to change the nectar in the feeder bi-weekly in the spring and fall, and weekly in the summer.



The most important aspect of a great garden starts with a sound foundation. You must have good soil. If garden beds do not have good textured soil that drains well, it won't matter what you plant....
few plants will do well.

The basic planting medium many of us find in our garden sites is two parts clay to one part construction debris. Or 100% clay which is as hard as adobe in summer and like gumbo in wet weather.

The best way to improve poor soil is to apply about six inches of organic matter and work in into the soil to a depth of 8 to 10 inches.
You can add compost, sphagnum peat moss, and rotted cow or horse manure. Stay away from the black sedge peat that is know often as organic peat or peat humus. Its texture is too fine and it does not help build good soil texture.

When using sphagnum peat moss, use another kind of organic material as well since, by itself, sphagnum peat moss causes an undesirable chemical reaction with the soil. If using leaf mold to improve the soil, you can used that material and will find that it builds a wonderful planting medium.

If you have a contractor do this work expect to pay two dollars or more per square foot for the spreading and preparation. It will take about two cubic yards of material for each 100 square feet of garden.

Adding composted leaves to your garden soil will increase water absorption, improve water retention, increase aeration and reduce compaction. Moreover, addition of this black gold will conserve moisture, reduce surface crusting, insulate the surface and modify the pH of the soil.

Regular mulching during the growing season with bark or more of the same soil conditioners will continue to improve the garden bed as well as to keep the weeds manageable. Whenever the old mulch has decomposed, add an additional inch or two. Once you have improved your garden soil in this way, you are bound to be pleased with the results. Your plants will begin to look like those in the catalogs.



Herbaceous perennials are non-woody plants that live two or more years under local conditions. The above ground parts of these plants are generally killed to the ground by frost in the fall, but the roots and/or underground parts live through the winter. Growth is renewed and the cycle begins anew in the spring.

While perennials do not require yearly replanting, they still require regular maintenance. For best results, a proper site analysis, soil preparation and routine maintenance are necessary. With proper attention to these details, a perennial garden can provide color and interest in the landscape throughout the growing season.

Site Analysis

Do a site analysis before purchasing or planting any perennials. Notes should be taken on soil type, exposure and the amount of sunlight, shade and wind that each perennial bed will receive. Most flowering perennials prefer six to eight hours of sun per day. Several perennials are adaptable to different situations, although certain conditions like heavy shade and wet soils will reduce plant selection. It is important all site conditions are known and that adaptable plant material is used.

Soil Preparation

Soil quality is probably the most important factor in determining the success of a perennial flower planting. Adequate soil moisture is needed during the growing season but it is very important that the soil not stay excessively moist during the winter dormant season. To improve waterlogged soils, raise the bed and incorporate organic matter such as compost or peat moss. Most perennials grow best in slightly acidic soils (pH 6.5 to 7.0). A soil test can be made to determine soil pH. Soil amendments should be added and worked in to a minimum depth of 6-10 inches prior to planting.

Selecting Plants and Planting

Perennial flowers are sold both in containers and bare-root. Plants should be healthy and show no signs of disease or nutrient deficiency. Container grown plants should be removed from the container to examine the roots. Healthy roots should be white and be able to hold soil. Do not buy plants with dark colored and/or tightly coiled roots. Bare-root plants should be checked to ensure roots have not dried out and that the young shoots are not wilting.
Generally, container-grown plants can be planted throughout the season. Most often they are planted in the spring. Perennials that are grown in heated greenhouses should not be planted until after danger of frost (32ºF) has past, much like annual bedding plants and vegetable transplants. Container-grown plants that have been exposed to outside temperatures throughout the winter can be planted as soon as the soil can be worked, about the same time trees and shrubs are planted. Fall planting of perennials promotes development of roots before onset of winter.

Planting depth.

A majority of perennials should be planted out at the same soil level as they were in their containers.

Routine Maintenance

Once established, most perennial flowers require only routine maintenance. Watering, fertilizing and mulching are essential maintenance practices that help perennials perform at their best. Thinning, pinching and deadheading are maintenance practices that promote longer bloom periods.


Water requirements of perennials can vary greatly from species to species, most require supplemental watering until well established. One inch of water a week is suitable for plant establishment. Once established, many perennials will require watering only during prolonged dry periods. Select waterwise perennials to reduce the need for supplemental watering. Watering should be deep, infrequent and applied directly to the soil. This type of watering will promote deep rooting and will help reduce leaf diseases.


Proper soil preparation and improvement before planting, reduces the needs for additional weekly fertilization. Application of a 'starter' fertilizer when perennials are first planted may aid in more rapid establishment of the root system. For established plants, an annual application of a balanced, slow release fertilizer can be beneficial. Fertilizers high in nitrogen should not be used as nitrogen promotes excessive foliage production at the expense of producing flowers and a strong root system. Apply fertilizer so it does not come in contact with the leaves, as it may scorch them.


Exposure to wind varies with the site. Thought should be given to staking, particularly if growing taller perennials such as delphinium or lilies on windy sites. It is best to stake plants when they are first sending growth up because smaller plants are easier to work with and less likely to be damaged by staking. Staking early is also more aesthetically pleasing because new plant growth will cover the stakes. A stake two-thirds as high as the stem's mature height should be pushed into the ground near the base of the shoot. Be careful not to harm the plant's roots. Secure the shoot to the stake using twine.


Mulch applied around perennials will help suppress weeds and improve soil structure while conserving soil moisture. Apply approximately 2 inches of a coarse mulch around the perennials, being careful not to apply too much around the crown of the plant. Excess mulch around the crown may hold moisture in and result in increased disease problems.


Hand weeding reduces competition for water and soil nutrients. If herbicides are used, do so carefully, as not to harm the perennial flowers.


Thinning dead and damaged shoots during the early stages of growth encourages stronger and healthier shoots. In late spring or early summer, when the plant is about one-third of its mature height, pinching can be done to increase flower development and encourage side shoot development. Pinching back new growth will help produce bushier plants which are less likely to require staking. Unless seedheads are used for winter decoration or seed is to be collected from them, flowers should be removed when they begin to fade. Deadheading may also promote additional flowering.

Fall Cleanup.

Once perennial plants have finished growing in the fall, cut the shoots down to the base (or leave 2 - 6 inches) and remove the debris. For plants that have some winter aesthetic value, like Sedum sp., cleanup can be left until spring.

Winter Protection.

Perennials damaged or killed during the winter usually are not injured directly by cold temperatures, but rather by rapidly fluctuating soil temperatures known as frost heaving. Frost heaving occurs when the soil alternately freezes and thaws, resulting in damage to the dormant crown and root system. Mulching in late fall with woodchips, pine needles, clean straw or other loose materials will help stop frost heaving. Do not use tree leaves or grass clippings as they may compact around the plant. Winter mulches should be applied after the ground freezes, usually in late November, and removed in early to mid-March.


Most perennials can be divided, and in fact need periodic division to maintain vigor and maximum flower production. This may need to be done annually, as with hardy chrysanthemums, but is usually only necessary every three to four years. Some perennials, such as baby's breath (Gypsophila paniculata), never should be divided.
Timing. The time of year when perennials are divided is a major factor in determining their success. Species that bloom from mid-summer to fall, are best divided in early spring, before new growth has begun. Perennials that bloom in the spring to early summer should be divided in the fall, or after the foliage dies. Exceptions are iris and daylilies, which are divided immediately after flowering.


To divide a perennial, first remove the plant from the ground by digging around and under the entire plant and lifting it carefully from the soil avoiding root damage. Shake loose soil off the roots gently. Remove and discard diseased parts and cut back the top of the plant (stems, shoots, leaves) to about 6 inches.


Fibrous rooted plants often can be divided by hand or by using two forks back-to-back. Divisions usually are taken from the outer perimeter of the plant, as this younger area tends to produce more healthy and vigorous growth. Plants forming a woody center or that have solid roots can be divided by using a sharp knife or a spade to cut through the crown. Divide the plant in such a way that each new division has at least three buds that will produce new shots.


Replant new divisions as soon as possible. Rework the soil if necessary to improve drainage and structure. Dig a hole of adequate size, allowing room to spread out the root system of the division when planting. Take care to replant the division at the proper depth. Water well and protect the plant from the sun on bright, warm days. A winter mulch is needed for divisions that are replanted in late summer or fall to help prevent frost heaving.

Insects and Disease

If the perennials are not growing well, in spite of using adaptable species and planting in suitable locations, check for insects and diseases. Thrips and aphids are common insects affecting plant growth. Mildews, leaf spots, molds, rust and viruses are common diseases that may infect perennial plants. To help prevent insect and disease problems, all debris should be removed from the garden and clean tools should be used.



Little Billy and his dad ventured into the woods to bring home a Christmas tree. They walked for hours in the snow, examining every tree they found. As the afternoon turned into evening, the temperature dropped ten degrees and the wind began to blow.

Still no tree. Finally, Little Billy piped up: "Listen, Dad, I really think we'd better take the next tree we see, whether it has lights on it or not!"

Tuesday, December 21, 2004


The Mandan Indian who was going to kill his wife visits Fort Mandan (see November 22 blog). He brings both of his wives and is very sorry for his past mistakes and wants to apologize. Captain Lewis cares for a young child with an abscess on his back. His mother offers to pay for his services by giving him as much corn that she can carry on her back.



Warning: This website takes several minutes to download.





According to Newsweek, petunias could be the next preventative against anthrax. A U.S. biotechnology company has been testing the efficacy of petunias as a nontoxic anthrax vaccine, and could test it on select military personnel as early as June if it receives Federal Drug Administration approval. The petunia-based vaccine is ingested and could be self-administered, versus the current form, which requires a shot.



The benefits of trees are many. Though shade and beauty are the two we most frequently refer to, there are many others that provide very real tangible additions to our communities. For example, well placed trees can reduce energy consumption. Trees also act as giant air conditioners by "cooling" surrounding air. This is accomplished as water evaporates from the surface of leaves, much like the evaporation of water that takes place from the condenser in your air conditioner. Wildlife habitat and screening are other benefits.

The benefits mention above are all greater with larger trees. Planting new trees is important, but caring for and protecting our investment in older large trees is critical.

A new awareness by the general public is beginning to unfold in recent years. Our knowledge abut how to care for trees is growing everyday. Researchers are learning more and passing that knowledge on.

One of the most aggressive areas of change in recent years has been the increased knowledge about how to protect trees during construction projects. It is no longer considered acceptable to clear large tracts of wooded areas to build homes, office buildings, and highways, without giving some consideration to tree protection strategies.

Urban foresters are now working with many developers to provide the technical expertise needed to allow construction activities and trees to co-exist on the same property. The first step is an inventory of what trees exist on the site. This can be easy on single home sites, and becomes complex on larger sites.

Once the inventory is complete tree locations are plotted on a map. This gives the builder and architect an opportunity to try out several options about where to place buildings, roads, parking, utility lines, and equipment storage areas. The "footprint" of a house or building can be adjusted to minimize impact on desirable trees.

The inventory will also reveal trees that should be removed because of hazardous conditions or poor health. Tree protection plans are meant to bring trees into the planning picture, not just to save as many trees as possible.

After the layout of a site plan is complete, the location of construction activities and how they will impact desirable trees becomes evident. Tree protection activities can then be prescribed.

Protective fencing is recommended where root zones may be compacted. Compaction occurs when equipment drives over roots or when materials are stored over the roots. Compacted soils will deprive the tree of oxygen it needs to grow new roots. Starving a tree's feeder roots that grow near the surface is a sure way to slowly kill a tree.

Using fencing to establish "tree protection zones" will keep roots healthy. To be effective, the fencing must protect the entire area under the branch spread (drip line) of the tree. Protection even beyond this area is best as roots will easily grow a vertical distance that is equal to twice the height of a tree!

If any of the roots are to be cut when excavation occurs for foundations or grading, it is best to "prune" these roots before they are ripped or torn by a backhoe blade. Cutting them cleanly with root pruning equipment will allow the roots to generate tissue that covers the wound. Without this protection, root rot fungi will enter the roots and decline begins. Placement and depth of root pruning should be determined by a qualified urban forester or arborist.

When fill is placed over tree roots, the result is the same as soil compaction. Existing roots are deprived of oxygen and the tree declines. If fill over roots is absolutely necessary, a system of perforated pipes can be used to feed oxygen to the roots at the original grade. The use of retaining walls and aeration systems can greatly minimize the chances of tree decline.

There are many other steps that can be taken to protect trees during construction. The steps mentioned are typically the most important, but careful review by a urban forester or arborist can help you determine which steps to take. The key is good planning and constant communication with your builder and contractors.

Many areas around the country have mandated tree protection on construction sites. Planning is now underway in St. Louis County to determine the need for a tree protection ordinance. Several communities including Kirkwood and Wildwood have introduced tree ordinances to protect our valuable assets. Just like the protection of trees, this process takes a great deal of planning and communication.



Schizophrenia -
Do You Hear What I Hear?

Multiple Personality -
We Three Queens Disoriented Are

Dementia -
I Think I'll Be Home For Christmas

Narcissistic -
Hark The Herald Angels Sing

(About Me)
Mania -
Deck the Halls and Walls
and House and Lawn and Streets
and Stores and Office and Town ...

Paranoia -
Santa Claus is Coming To Town
(To Get Me)

Personality Disorder -
You Better Watch Out, I'm Gonna Cry,
I'm Gonna Pout,
then MAYBE I'll tell you why

Depression -
Silent anhedonia, Holy anhedonia.
All is calm, All is pretty lonely.

Obsessive Compulsive -
Jingle Bell, Jingle Bell, Jingle Bell Rock,
Jingle Bell, Jingle Bell, Jingle Bell Rock,
Jingle Bell, Jingle Bell, Jingle Bell Rock,
Jingle Bell, Jingle Bell, Jingle Bell Rock,
Jingle Bell, Jingle Bell, Jingle Bell Rock,
Jingle Bell, Jingle Bell, Jingle Bell Rock,
Jingle Bell, Jingle Bell, Jingle Bell Rock,
Jingle Bell, Jingle Bell, Jingle Bell Rock,
Jingle Bell...

Borderline Personality -
Thoughts of Roasting
in an Open Fire

Passive Aggressive -
On the First Day of Christmas
My True Love Gave to Me
(and then took it all away)




After a young couple brought their new baby home, the wife suggested that her husband should try his hand at changing diapers.

"I'm busy," he said, "I'll do the next one."

The next time came around and she asked again.

The husband looked puzzled,"Oh! I didn't mean the next diaper. I
meant the next baby!"

Monday, December 20, 2004


Temperatures have risen to 37 F. The men start building a fence around Fort Mandan with wood they have gathered before the cold snap hit.


Landscaping adds an average of 15% to the value of homes, according to a nationwide poll of homeowners that was conducted in 2002 by the Gallup Organization.

A separate nationwide survey sampled members of the Society of Real Estate Appraisers and 99% agreed that landscaping enhances the sales appeal of residential property.

First Impressions

“An attractive lawn should be the first consideration in reinforcing this curbside appeal”, said Oliva Golden, Executive Director for the Professional Lawn Care Association of Mid America (PLCAMA).
“A well maintained lawn provides a showcase for house and all the surrounding landscaping,” she said. “Lawns which are properly fertilized develop a healthy plant system which produces a thick turf. In turn, a dense turf absorbs heat and noise, minimizes dust, and helps control soil erosion. Additionally, a uniform green lawn conveys a pleasant image and has recreational value”.

“Controlling insects and diseases is essential for maintaining a healthy lawn”, said Golden. “Effective weed control reduces the spread of seeds and pollen from noxious lawn weeds. A vigorously growing lawn also helps alleviate airborne pollution. It exchanges oxygen for carbon dioxide through the natural process of photosynthesis”.



Gardeners interested in improving their lawn or garden should consider investing in a soil test. Soil tests serve as a valuable guide for fertilization practices in vegetable gardens, home lawns and flower beds. Soil tests indicate the amount of available nutrients in the soil and recommendations are given on how best to correct any deficiencies indicated. In addition, the acidity or alkalinity of the soil is also determined.

When a soil is found to have a low pH, the addition of limestone is recommended. This not only raises the pH to the proper level, but also adds magnesium to the soil. In addition, it helps improve the soil structure, aids in breaking down the thatch and offsets the acid reaction of fertilizers.

If, on the other hand, the soil is too alkaline, acidifying agents should be added to the soil. If the problem is slight, the use of acid peat and acid forming fertilizers may be all that is needed. If the alkalinity is more severe, sulfur or iron sulfate may be needed.

Seldom do our soils require the addition of phosphate or potash, but occasionally this is needed to bring the soil to the proper nutrient level.

A soil test also measures the percentage of organic matter. Soils low in organic matter often have a problem with moisture. Generally, these soils will not hold sufficient moisture and dry out quickly or else the water is held so tightly it is not available to plant roots. Shallow root systems develop under dry weather conditions and damage often occurs. Soil tests can be done for lawns or gardens, and are valuable in growing plants such as azaleas, rhododendrons and roses. Soil tests can be obtained through the University of Missouri Extension office or locally at OK Hatchery in Kirkwood.


To: All Employees
From: Management
Subject: Office conduct during the Christmas season

Effective immediately, employees should keep in mind the following guidelines in compliance with F.R.O.L.I.C. (the Federal Revelry Office and Leisure Industry Council).

Running aluminum foil through the paper shredder to make tinsel is discouraged.
Playing Jingle Bells on the push-button phone is forbidden.
Work requests are not to be filed under "Bah humbug."
Company cars are not to be used to go over the river and through the woods to Grandma's house.
All fruitcake is to be eaten BEFORE July 25.
Egg nog will NOT be dispensed in vending machines.
In spite of all this, the staff is encouraged to have a Happy Holiday.



A woman went to the Post Office to buy stamps for her Christmas cards.

"What denomination?" asked the clerk.

"Oh, good heavens! Have we come to this?" said the woman."Well, give me 50 Catholic and 50 Baptist ones."


A father was bending over to tie his three-year-old's shoes. His son was staring at his father's head. He gently touched
the slightly thinning spot of hair and said in a concerned voice,
"Daddy, you have a hole in your head. Does it hurt?"

After a short pause, a murmured reply answered, "Not physically."

Sunday, December 19, 2004

Corps of Discovery Spring 2004

Greenscape Gardens
More fall color at the Dougherty Ferry Gazebo at Greenscape Gardens.

Greenscape Gardens
Amish buggy surrounded by Mums

Greenscape Gardens
Goodbye fall flowers

Greenscape Gardens

Captain Clark writes that the weather has moderated to a comfortable 16 F. He spends a large portion of the day updating his maps.



Snow provides moisture as well as protection from cold and wind.
Snow is an excellent insulator against low temperatures and excessive winds. The extent of protection depends on the depth of snow. Generally, the temperature below the snow increases by about 2 degrees F for each inch of accumulation. In addition, the soil gives off some heat so that the temperature at the soil surface can be much warmer than the air temperature. One study found that the soil surface temperature was 28 degrees F with a 9-inch snow depth and an air temperature of -14 F!

Snow brings welcome moisture to many landscape plants, which will in turn help prevent desiccation injury. Even dormant plants continue to lose moisture from twigs (as water vapor) in the process known as transpiration. Evergreen plants, which keep their leaves through the winter, are at even greater risk of injury.
On the other hand, some evergreens can suffer from too much snow load. The weight of snow and ice can bend or even break branches, particularly on multi-stemmed shrubs such as arborvitae. Snow should be gently removed by brushing away with a broom. Do not try to remove ice since it is more likely that you will break the stems. Multi-stemmed shrubs that are known to be susceptible to breakage can be bound with twine to hold branches together.

Of course, there's still much more winter to come before we'll know how well our plants fare. In the meantime, rest assured that there really is a silver lining in the storm clouds, at least its better than today's temperature of 15 F and a wind chill of ZERO!



Holly (Ilex aquifolium) can tolerate either sun and shade. Although semi-shade is preferable in midsummer, the more light it has the more dense its foliage will be. Holly requires well-drained, slightly acid, fertile soil. American and Foster will grow to thirty feet or taller, so consider this when you are deciding where to plant your tree. They should not be planted in open areas where they may be exposed to cold winter winds or excessively hot summer sun.

Plant your holly in early spring, before new growth begins and mulch with a 2 to 4 inch layer of ground bark or other coarse material to keep the roots cool and moist. The root system resents being disturbed, so do not cultivate the soil around them. Hollies sometimes drop their old leaves due to transplant shock, but new foliage will soon emerge. Be careful not to overwater holly that has lost its leaves. Keep the soil moist during the summer growing season, but allow it to dry somewhat in early fall to allow the season's growth to mature enough to resist winter damage. Feeding should be done in early spring or late autumn with a fertilizer formulated for acid-loving broad-leaved evergreens. (cottonseed meal, rhododendron fertilizer, Miracid®, etc.) If pruning becomes necessary, do it in early spring before new growth begins, trimming towards a symmetrical shape. An application of Wilt Pruf in late fall will help reduce moisture dessication. A second application in late January or early February is highly adivsed also.

The male and female flowers of the holly tree are produced on separate plants. Therefore to ensure berry production, both male and female plants need to be planted. The male tree must be within 100 feet of a female tree of the same species in order for bees to successfully pollinate the female flowers and thereby produce the bright red berries that holly is know for.



Please accept with no obligation, implied or implicit OUR best wishes for an environmentally conscious, socially responsible, low stress, non-addictive, gender neutral, celebration of the winter solstice holiday(tm), practiced within the most enjoyable traditions of the religious persuasion of your choice, or secular practices of your choice, with respect for the religious/secular persuasions and/or traditions of others, or their choice not to practice religious or secular traditions at all . . . and a fiscally successful, personally fulfilling, and medically uncomplicated recognition of the onset of the generally accepted calendar year 2004, but not without due respect for the calendars of choice of other cultures whose contributions to society have helped make America great, (not to imply that America is necessarily greater than any other country or is the only "AMERICA" in the western hemisphere), and without regard to the race, creed, color, age, physical ability, religious faith, choice of computer platform, or sexual orientation of the wishee.

By accepting this greeting, you are accepting these terms:
This greeting is subject to clarification or withdrawal. It is freely transferable with no alteration to the original greeting. It implies no promise by the wisher to actually implement any of the wishes for her/himself or others, and is void where prohibited by law, and is revocable at the sole discretion of the wisher. This wish is warranted to perform as expected within the usual application of good tidings for a period of one year, or until the issuance of a subsequent holiday greeting, whichever comes first, and warranty is limited to replacement of this wish or issuance of a new wish at the sole discretion of the wisher.




Santa was very cross. It was Christmas Eve and NOTHING was going right. Mrs Claus had burned all the cookies. The elves were complaining about not getting paid for the overtime they had put in while making the toys. The reindeer had been drinking all afternoon and were dead drunk. To make matters worse, they had taken the sleigh out for a spin earlier in the day and had crashed it into a tree.

Santa was furious. "I can't believe it! I've got to deliver millions of presents all over the world in just a few hours- all of my reindeer are drunk, the elves are on strike and I don't even have a Christmas tree! I sent that stupid Little Angel out HOURS ago to find a tree and he isn't even back yet! What am I going to do?"

Just then, the Little Angel opened the front door and stepped in from the snowy night, dragging a Christmas tree. He says, "Yo, fat man! Where do you want me to stick the tree this year?"

And thus, the tradition of angels atop the Christmas trees came to pass...



A Minister had gotten about two-thirds through his sermon when he found an unexpected shortage of manuscript. After fumbling it a moment he said, "My good friends, I find the last pages of my discourse have gone. I think my favorite dog must have gotten some of them yesterday and eaten them. You must excuse me from the remainder of the discourse."

After service, a meek little woman from another parish introduced herself and said, "I was much interested in that dog of yours and its performance yesterday, and might I ask a question?"

"Certainly, madam." "I want to know if it has any puppies, for I would like to take one home to my minister."

Water feature completed September 2004

Greenscape Gardens