Saturday, January 01, 2005

Our latest natural fertilizing machines creates beautiful gardens.

Greenscape Gardens

Nothing is certain.....except the past...HAPPY NEW YEAR



Two cannons are fired to celebrate the new year. 16 of the men have been invited to the Indians' camp. Clark and York decide to go to the Indians' celebration. The Mandans are surprised how well York dances in spite of his large size. Captain Clark calls on all the chiefs except two who spoke unfavorably about the Corps. Later the chiefs recant their disfavor.



A healthy, well manicured lawn is a joy to use and see. Glare is softened, feet are cushioned, noise is reduced. It increases the selling price of a home by 15%.



When the first signs of spring appear, the ritual of weekly grass cutting resumes. Before you start mowing, be sue to brush up on the following safety tips.

Before you start mowing, scan through your operator’s manual to refresh your memory on safety and preventative maintenance. Maintenance helps prolong the life of your mower and keeps it operating safely.

You should also walk around your yard and pick up any debris laying in the yard that could be thrown by the fast moving mower blades.

Other tips include:

• Attempt to mow in a forward direction at all times.
• Make sure children and pets are away from the mowing area to prevent accidents caused by objects thrown from the mower’s blades.
• Dress in long slacks and avoid wearing loose clothing that could get caught in the mower’s moving parts.
• Wear sturdy shoes with slip-resistant soles to avoid injury to your feet.
• Never put your fingers near the cutting blade while the mower is running. Use a stick or a tool to remove any clogs that develop, after the mower is safely turned off.
• Mow back and forth on hillsides to prevent falling on the mower if you trip. If the slope of the hill is too steep to mow safely, plant groundcover or landscape instead.
• If you need to add fuel, roll the mower outside of the garage. A driveway provides good ventilation and any spills can be wiped up with ease.
• No smoking. Leave matches and smoking materials inside to prevent absentmindedly lighting a cigarette while pouring fuel.

You should never mow the lawn when the grass is wet. You could easily slip on the wet grass. Moisture often carries disease organisms that can be transferred from one part of the lawn to another by simply walking on the lawn or mowing the lawn.
To protect hands and feet from injury, keep them away from injury, keep them away from the blade and discharge chute. If the chute gets clogged, turn off the engine before attempting to correct the situation. Disconnect the spark plug on a walk behind mower before working around the blade. Also turn off the engine on any mower before emptying the material collection system.

If you have to leave the mower for even a moment, stop the engine. Some mowers have a safety switch that will stop the engine if you get off the mower while the blades are still engaged.

Follow these safety precautions to make lawn care as worry free as possible. And above everything else, USE COMMON SENSE.
For additional lawn mower safety tips check:



A man takes his place in the theater, but realizes his seat is too far from the stage. He whispers to the usher, "This is a mystery, and I have to watch a mystery close up. Get me a better seat, and I'll give you a handsome tip."

The usher moves him into the second row, and the man hands the usher a quarter.

Yes. You guessed it, another big tipper.

The usher looks at the quarter in his hand, leans over and whispers, "The wife did it."

Friday, December 31, 2004


Greenscape Gardens

Greenscape Gardens


The Indians bring some of their tools to Fort Mandan for the blacksmiths to repair. They pay for the repairs by bartering with dried corn in return. The wind is so strong that it mixes sand and snow together and leaves piles on the Missouri ice.



The time is growing nearer,
The New Year is almost here,
So break out the noisemakers
And get ready to cheer!

The night has got to be
Most sure to entertain,
With a group of close friends
And a bit of champagne.

We'll pop the bottle's cork
And pour everyone a glass;
Together we will make this night
A memory to surely last!

Then when the clock strikes twelve o' clock
We'll know it's finally time,
To give a kiss to the ones we love
And join in singing "Auld Lang Syne."

For one thing is certain,
I just don't know what I'd do
If I couldn't celebrate the New Year
With such wonderful GARDENERS as YOU!



A turf area just 50 feet by 50 feet absorbs carbon dioxide, ozone, hydrogen fluoride and releases enough oxygen to meet the needs of a family of four. The grass and trees along the U.S. interstate highway system release enough oxygen to support 22 million people.



Diplodia Tip blight of pines has been identified as a problem in pine plantings throughout the St. Louis area. This disease is primarily found on Austrian and Scots pines. Red and Ponderosa pines are also very susceptible. This disease usually causes death of the shoot before the needles are fully expanded. These browned shoots remain on the tree throughout the year and reduce the ornamental value of the plant.

The fungus also causes branch cankers. This phase of the disease is poorly understood and there are no adequate control measures. Avoid planting young pines of the more susceptible species near older infected pines.


Water Conservation in the Landscape

Water is one of our most valuable natural resources. Most of the time, however, we take it for granted and use it in abundance until drought sets in and we are forced to conserve. We have had a great deal of rainfall lately and with rivers and streams overflowing it is difficult for us to think about water conservation. However, due to several years of drought conditions and increasing water use, our ground water sources continue to be threatened. To protect our water supply from extreme shortages, we should strive daily to conserve water.

One area where water use can be decreased without sacrificing beauty or function is in landscaping. The xeriscaping means landscaping for efficient water use. By using plants that are drought tolerant and by knowing what amount of water is right for your landscape and when to water, you can use much less water.
Landscape plants have a variety of water needs. Plants need the most water immediately after being planted and during establishment. Before planting, make sure that you can provide enough water during this establishment time for the plants that you have chosen.

Landscape plants are available at garden centers and nurseries either container grown or balled and burlapped. These trees and shrubs can be planted even during a drought if watered at planting time and at least twice a week for the remainder of the growing season. Trees and shrubs, 1 to 3 gallon size, require 3 to 5 gallons of water twice a week during establishment.

Choose plants based on water needs. Many of the plants we use in southern landscapes can live through drought. Once they are established, plants such as Crape Myrtle, Elaeagnus, Cedar, Chinese and Japanese Hollies, Glossy Abelia, and Juniper can survive weeks without supplemental irrigation. The placement of plants is another key component in efficient water use. Incorporate natural areas into your landscape design wherever possible. Native plants, once established, often require little supplemental water and maintenance.

Manage the soil for efficient water use. Preparing the soil thoroughly helps assure good root growth. Research has shown that digging a wide planting hole and tilling the soil thoroughly improves the structure of the soil and results in rapid plant and better root growth. Do not amend specimen tree plantings where and individual planting hole is dug. In this case the should only contain the soil that came out of the hole. Soil amendments should only be added to large planting beds where the entire planting area is amended. Heavy clay soils have a high water holding capacity and will benefit from adding some type of coarse amendment, like pine bark 1/2 inch), which will improve the ability of water to move through the soil. Sandy soils, on the other hand, may not hold enough water and nutrients for plant use. Adding organic matter to these soils may be helpful. Your goal should be to provide the roots of plants with a moist, growing environment.

Mulching can also decrease your landscape's water needs. Two to four inches of mulch, such as pine straw, pine bark, hardwood bark, or compost, help conserve soil moisture. Mulch also insulates the root system of plants from heat and helps control weeds which compete with the plant for water. Fine textured mulches, such as hardwood bark or pine bark mulch, retain more moisture than coarse mulches. On sloping sites, pine straw or shredded mulches that lock together stay in place better than most other mulches and helps control erosion. Landscape fabrics can also be used under mulch to conserve moisture, discourage weeds, and enhance erosion control.
Be conservative with irrigation. Pattern irrigation systems to meet the water needs of particular plant zones. The best time to water landscape plants and turf is early in the morning. Less evaporation occurs during this time, and the plants can make more efficient use of the water. Applying water as slowly as possible through trickle irrigation or soaker hose improves absorption into the soil. Trickle or drip irrigation of trees and shrubs reduces water use by as much as 50 percent compared to conventional sprinkler irrigation. Water applied too rapidly may run off and be wasted, particularly on slopes.

A timer installed on outdoor faucets to control the period of irrigation will prevent unnecessary water use. One inch of water (5 gallons per square yard of surface area or 620 gallons per 1,000 square feet) applied once a week on established plants and turf is recommended. This can usually be applied in one or two There is no need to run an irrigation system every day or every other day. For trees, at least 50 percent of the root area should be watered. The root zone of large trees and shrubs can extend well beyond the drip line. A thorough soaking of the soil once a week is much better for plants than light, frequent irrigation that encourages shallow rooting.



We had made some changes in our lives. My husband had lost 50 pounds and after eight years of being a housewife, I had taken a job in a restaurant. When I returned home after my first day at work, I gave my husband a big hug.

He seemed to cling to me longer than usual. "Did you
really miss me that much today, dear?" I asked.

"No," came the reply. "But you smell so much like pancakes that I hate to let you go."

Thursday, December 30, 2004

Fountain inside the shade area where seasonal flowers and plants are displayed. The ambiance of moving water compliments the gardening experience at Greenscape.

Greenscape Gardens
Every flower must grow..........through dirt!



Many Indians visit Fort Mandan today and they are amazed at the forge's bellows despite of the cold -20 F day outside.



The Missouri Department of Agriculture announced they were stepping up surveillance at Missouri nurseries for the plant disease Phytophthora ramorum in response to recent identification of the disease in a southern California nursery.

"Our inspectors are visiting nurseries and dealers looking at plants for potential symptoms," said state entomologist, Mike Brown. "At this point, we're not sure if infected stock reached the borders of our state, but we're working with officials from the U.S. Department of Agriculture to conduct trace forwards."

The fungus-like disease, which leads to a condition often referred to as "sudden oak death," was first discovered in June 2000 in northern California. It has since been linked to the loss of ten of thousands of oak trees in California and Oregon forests. Thought to thrive only in wet environments typical of the coastal region, the discovery of the disease in southern California, an area with a very dry, desert-like climate, was unexpected and concerning.

"Until this discovery, scientific evidence suggested the disease couldn't establish itself in dryer climates like those found in the interior of the United States," Brown said. "But this discovery may change that way of thinking."

The plant stock in question was sent from Monrovia Nursery in Azusa, California, a 500 acre facility that ships millions of plants every year to nurseries across the United States and throughout Canada. The disease was confirmed among a supply of camellias at the nursery. Samples have been taken from additional California nurseries, and officials are waiting for confirmation from plant pathologists.

Brown noted the disease may have been introduced to several sites across the country, given that many of the plants thought to have been affected were shipped in 2003. Identification of the disease could be hampered by the similarity of the symptoms, such as bark cankers and browning leaves, to other plant diseases.

"We're vigilant and staying informed, and that's important at this stage," Brown said. "There's really no cause for alarm at this time."

The USDA expanded its quarantine in California, restricting the movement of all known host plants and associated stock, including rhododendrons, camellias and others. The quarantine applies to the entire state of California. Nurseries are not allowed to ship known host plants until they've been inspected and found free of the disease. In addition to the quarantine, a national survey will be conducted to determine the scope and distribution of the disease.

Brown says officials are still trying to determine the impact the disease would have on Missouri's oak forest should it become established. Lab tests indicate the state's species of oak trees are susceptible to the disease, but it's not clear if the environment will support it.

For additional information about sudden oak death, contact the department's Plant Industries Division at 573-751-5505. The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service has established a web site listing plants susceptible to the disease. That list can be downloaded at



Front lawns of just eight average houses have the cooling effect of about 70 tons of air conditioning, while the average home size cntral air unit has only a 3 to 4 ton capacity.



When the warmer weather of spring arrives, it also announces cedar apple rust in both apples and flowering crabs.

This fungus has two different hosts in the disease cycle. The fungus, Gymnosporangium juniper-virginianae, infects red cedar or the common juniper during late summer and produces small greenish-brown galls at the base of the needdles. They enlarge up to 1 to 2 inches in diameter. In the spring, during warm wet weather of April and May, the galls develop conspicuous orange-brown jelly-like structures know as “telial horns”, one half to 2 inches in length. Spores are wind blown from these structures to apples or flowering crabs. Infections on the apple leaves occur throughout the early part of the season. Small yellow spots develop on the upper surfaces of the apple leaves of susceptible varieties.

In late summer, spores (aeciospores) are produced on the lower surfaces of the spots on the apple leaves, and are carried by wind back to red cedars to complete the disease cycle. Cedar apple rust can be controlled by keeping apples and cedar trees sufficiently far apart from each other to reduce potential infections. Homeowners may not be able to have this benefit when a neighbor has a red cedar or juniper.

Fungicide applications to the apples can be made to reduce infections on the leaves. There are several labeled fungicides available. For maximum control, consult an urban forester or tree care company to have these valuable trees properly cared for.

For additional information concerning Apple Cedar Rust and some great photos go to the Ohio State website at



A little boy forgot his lines in a Sunday School presentation. His
mother, sitting in the front row to prompt him, gestured and formed the words silently with her lips, but it didn't help. Her son's memory was blank.

Finally she leaned forward and whispered the cue, "I am the light
of the world.

"The child beamed and with great feeling and a loud, clear
voice said, "My mother is the light of the world."

Wednesday, December 29, 2004


A garden is a poem.....without words



Captain Clark is getting used to life on the High Plains with today's entry of "it's only -9 F" and I don't consider it very cold".


Powell Gardens Joins as Program Partner

(ST. LOUIS): The Missouri Botanical Garden in St. Louis has designated 55 "Plants of Merit" for the Midwest in 2005. The Plants of Merit distinction aims to build home gardeners' confidence in selecting previously little known or underutilized annuals, perennials, shrubs, vines and trees for their proven excellent qualities and dependable performance in the growing region.

The Garden also welcomes Powell Gardens of Kansas City, MO. into the program as its first botanical garden partner.

Plants of Merit began in 1999 as a joint effort between the Garden's Kemper Center for Home Gardening and University of Missouri Extension. In 2003, Grow Native!, a joint program of the Missouri Department of Conservation and the Missouri Department of Agriculture, joined the partnership. Garden and university horticulturalists, as well as regional growers examine plants growth characteristics, pest and disease tolerance, maintenance requirements and more to narrow down selections successful in USDA Zones Five and Six. Plants of Merit is one of the largest plant selection programs in the U.S. and is unique in its promotion of diversity with underutilized but reliable material. A list of recommeded plants is published annually for home gardeners.

In August of 2004, Powell Gardens became the first botanical garden to join the Plants of Merit partnership. "We look forward to this partnership and working with the Missouri Botanical Garden to educate the public on these meritorious plants," said Eric Tschanz, president and executive director, Powell Gardens. "With our combined resources, we have an opportunity to make this a premier program statewide and beyond."

The addition of Powell Gardens broadens the scope and geographic range of the Plants of Merit program by allowing for evaluation of plants in a cooler and drier climate. Powell Gardens will display signage throughout their grounds identifying Plants of Merit, sell the Plants of Merit brochure, offer educational opportunities and encourage local and regional garden centers to participate in the program.

The Plants of Merit program aims to diversify the home gardening landscape by promoting plants that are relatively underutilized in home gardens. Plants may be known by professionals but not by the general public and are therefore unfamiliar to consumers. Annuals and perennials must perform well in one or more locations in the Midwest region for two or three years, and trees and shrubs must perform well for at least five years, in order to be considered for nomination. The program brochure contains information on each plant selection, such as sun and water growing conditions, usage recommendations and whether plants are native selections. New plants are added to the list each year, while others "graduate" to emeritus standing once they have increased in popularity and are no longer underused.

Highlights of the 2005 Plants of Merit list include blue false indigo (Baptistia australis) a showy, low maintenance addition to any landscape or garden. This native plant has been around for many years; early Americans used it as a substitute for true indigo when making blue dyses. However, gardeners rarely see the plant in full bloom while potted, according to Mary Ann Fink, coordinator and ambassador of the program. "Baptistia australis is our 'cover girl' because she is a perfect example of what the Plants of Merit program is about," said Fink. "She Blooms beautifully once planted. She's a 'local girl' but homeowners just don't know her. This program is all about helping everyone enjoy more success with their gardens," said Fink.

Another perennial, Spanish bluebell (Hyacinthoides hispanica) is new to the list in 2005 and the first bulb ever to be promoted as a Plant of Merit. Also known as squill or Scilla, its many name changes over the years have caused it to be less well known. Each bulb produces 12 or more bell-shaped flowers in spring and is an excellent selection for borders or underneath trees.

In 2004, a consulting committee of area green industry specialists and sponsors was formed to assist with future Plant of Merit recommendations. Specialists were selected based on their vast knowledge of growing plants in each of the various categories the list encompasses. Also in 2004, Wydown Park of the city of Clayton's Parks & Recreation Department was the first local garden to be recognized with a "Merit Garden Award." A garden can be considered for this status if Plants of Merit (either currently active or graduates) are present, it is open to the public and has the Plants of Merit signage present for one full season. Jefferson City Master Gardeners were the first in the region to establish a Merit Garden.

New Plants of Merit gift card sets are now available at the Missouri Botanical Garden's Garden Gate Shop and participating Plants of Merit garden centers. Each set contains ten plant images digitally created by Master Gardener Dr. Jim Teng. All sale proceeds benefit the Plants of Merit program.

For more information on Plants of Merit, visit or contact Dr. Steve Cline at (314)577-9561 or Plants of Merit brochures may also be purchased at the Missouri Botanical Garden's Kemper Center for Home Gardening and the Garden Gate Shop.



Cutting height settings of 2 to 3 inches are appropriate for most lawns during cool weather. A higher cut may be needed to protect the lawn during the hot summer months. Most grasses should be mowed when they have grown ½ to 1 inch above the recommended height. For best results, mow the lawn frequently enough that you will need to cut off less than one inch of grass per occurrence.

Frequent mowings, with light cuts, makes it easier to turn the grass clippings into fine particles that will fall through the turf and decompose quickly.

As a general rule, do not cut off more than a third of the total height of the grass in one mowing. If tall grass is reduced in height a little at a time, and is allowed to recover between mowings, the grass will be healthier, and the mower will work better and leave a better lawn finish.

For best performance, the blade should be sharpened several times during the growing season. Always use the fast throttle setting, and keep the engine running at or near maximum rpm. If you hear the engine speed decrease, that means you should mow a narrower swath, and/or mow slower. You may also need to raise the mower’s cutting height.

For good mowing conditions, the grass should be relatively dry. If dust is a problem, water your lawn the day before mowing, allowing the grass to dry while the soil remains moist.

Always wait for wet grass to dry. Wet grass will clog the mower deck, and it will leave clumps on top of the lawn. Heavy clumps of clippings should always be removed from the lawn. Grass must remain uncovered to grow properly.

Mulching cuts grass clippings and fallen leaves into fine particles that will fall through the turf and decompose quickly. This returns nutrients to the soil and reduces the need for raking, agging and disposal.



The earth is warming. Average global temperatures are the highest on record. The 1980’s produced the five hottest years of this century. The implications for society could be enormous if this trend continues.

• Agricultural areas may be affected by climatic changes.
• Our ability to produce food and maintain our drinking water supplies could be reduced substantially.
• The root of this global climatic change is the “greenhouse effect,” carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere traps the sun’s energy, turning the earth into a planetary hothouse.
• Some scientists estimate that the level of atmospheric carbon dioxide could double in a few years, and global temperatures could rise 6-12 degrees Fahrenheit.
• World energy use is the main contributor to atmospheric carbon dioxide. The United States, with only 5% of the world’s population, produces nearly 25% of the annual global carbon dioxide from burning fossil fuels.
• Urban areas, with their expanses of concrete create “heat islands”.
• In the last decade, only one tree was planted for every four that died or were removed in the average American city or town.
• Trees and other plants can absorb carbon dioxide. Trees, for example, can absorb carbon dioxide at the rate of 26 pounds per year---about 5 tons per acre per year.


Dothistroma Blight of Austrian Pines

This is a fungal disease of pine needles. We see it primarily on Austrian Pines. Dark green bands are closely followed by tan spots and bands. These turn reddish brown. Needles begin to die from the tip back and needle base usually remain green. Although the fungus can infect throughout the season, adequate control can be achieved with one or two sprays in late spring. The first spray in early to mid-May protects mature foliage. A second spray in mid-June will protect the current season’s needles, which are resistant until they achieve full growth. Consult with a tree care professional to protect these valuable trees.



Late one night, a mugger wearing a ski mask jumped into the path of a well-dressed man and stuck a gun in his ribs.

"Give me your money," he demanded.

Indignant, the affluent man replied, "You can't do this - I'm
a United States Congressman!"

"In that case," replied the mugger, "give me MY money."

Tuesday, December 28, 2004


Eating your words......never causes indigestion



A hard artic wind blows frost that falls like snow, and levels the land as it pushing snow and thereby filling the hollows.



Anthracnose causes large irregular brown or black lesions along the midrib, veins, or on the margins of the leaves of broadleafed trees. Anthracnose is not a single disease. It is a loose classification of diseases caused by several fungi. These are grouped together on the basis of similar microscopic characteristics and because they cause similar symptoms. Anthracnose fungi on sycamore and occasionally, oak may also cause twig and branch cankers.

Established trees in good condition can tolerate foliar anthracnose. Raking up leaves in the fall and removing them from the area of the tree may help reduce infection next year. When these leaves are added to the compost pile, add nitrogen or vegetation with a nitrogen content to assure that the compost will heat up enough to kill the pathogen.

Fungicidal control measures should be considered if a tree is repeatedly defoliated in any one year, if a tree is defoliated in more than one consecutive growing season, or if a tree is under stress or in decline from other causes. To be effective, fungicidal sprays must be started at leaf emergence, well before the symptoms are seen. When anthracnose causes more serious problems (especially on sycamores), management should be developed on a case by case basis depending on the severity of the problem and the needs of the owner.

Another problem associated with oaks is iron deficiency. Check out our link concerning chloratic oaks on the Greenscape Gardens website.



Composting has been around since the first civilized people piled up their trash. However, when the earth was not heavily populated, a little trash did not seem important. Now we are producing great amounts of trash and composting has become important for reducing at least a portion of the waste stream. Vegetation matter is one of the most recyclable portions of waste. Home gardeners, landowners and municipalities can do a lot to reduce the accumulation of plant materials by composting them.

Composting is not a difficult or highly technical process. However, there are times when the process may not function properly. Successful composting is based on proper moisture, aeration and other environmental conditions.

Green plants are largely composed of carbon and water. The carbon accumulates from the process known as photosynthesis during which carbon dioxide in the air becomes part of the plant with the resulting release of oxygen into the air.

Certain bacteria, align with fungi and other organisms, are responsible for decomposing organic materials. These organisms require large amounts of nitrogen to function properly and achieve rapid decomposition. While the decomposition process is taking place, the nitrogen is tied up and not available for other functions. This is the same process that occurs when large amounts of organic matter are added to a garden, but not enough nitrogen is available. Plants growing in these conditions will be starved for nitrogen since the microorganisms breaking down the organic materials will keep the plants from getting it. Plants will look stunted and pale green.

For additional information concerning composting and its benefits check:



Torn or stripped bark is the result of limbs being violently broken from the tree by wind or branches falling from above. To improve appearance and eliminate hiding places for insects, carefully use a chisel or sharp knife to smooth ragged edges of dead or dying bark.

Remove the bark back to the point at which it is attached to the tree. Try not to expose any more cambium (inner bark). Shaping the tear into an ellipse has more aesthetic value than effect on the wound closure, and if you use this traditional method, round the ends to prevent dieback of the cambium at these points. Keep the wound as narrow as you can to hasten wound closing.

For additional information concerning the care of your trees check out:



Working people frequently ask retired folks what they do to make their days interesting...

My dad went to the store the other day. He was in there for only about five minutes. When I came out there was a cop writing out a parking ticket.

He went up to him and said, "Come on, buddy, how about giving a senior a break?"

He ignored him and continued writing the ticket. He called him several obnoxious names. The cop glared at him and started writing another ticket for having worn tires.

So my dad continued calling him other obnoxious names. The cop finished the second ticket and put it on the windshield with the first.

Then he started writing a third ticket. This went on for about 20 minutes. The more my father abused him the more tickets he wrote.

My dad didn't care. His car was parked around the corner and this one had a "Kerry-Edwards" bumper sticker on it.

He was simply trying to have a little fun (at someone else's expense) now that he's retired.

Monday, December 27, 2004

Greenscape Gardens 2004 company picnic. Geovanne, Matt and Matt Mazzola.

Greenscape Gardens
Greenscape Gardens 2004 company picnic. Kevin "Thunder Bob" and Nick inside the house.

Greenscape Gardens
Greenscape Gardens 2004 Company picnic. Geovanne & Fide with the "Big" fish.

Greenscape Gardens
Greenscape Gardens 2004 company picnic at the Farm. Jennifer & Jill

Greenscape Gardens
Greenscape Gardens 2004 Company picnic at the farm. Jill & Fide

Greenscape Gardens
Jennifer & Joel planting a Cleveland Select Pear for pilot garden show.

Greenscape Gardens
The pilot was shot in mid October 2004, with a possible airing in Spring of 2005. Photo shot was next to the Dougherty Ferry Gazebo. The amazing fact is the amount of traffic along Dougherty Ferry was not a large hinderance.

Greenscape Gardens
Jennifer & Joel shooting a pilot for a television gardening show. One of the exerpts was for proper planting of a decidious tree.

Greenscape Gardens
Peter Mayer in concert in December in Manchester, Missouri. Peter Mayer is lead guitar for Jimmy Buffett's Coral Reefer Band.

Greenscape Gardens

Fort Mandan's interior walls are completed. Shields and Willard, the Corps' blacksmiths, are hard at work with their portable forge, repairing the gear and making metal items to trade for food. The visiting Indians are fascinated with the work being performed by the blacksmiths.



High-tech societies have been criticized for their “throwaway” habits. But there is one common “throwaway” item that can be recycle at home very easily---lawn debris composed of grass clippings and tree leaves. Anyone who mows a lawn can return valuable nutrients to the soil and helps relieve a landfill crisis.

Mulching type mowers have been designed by many of the major lawn mower manufacturers. Homeowners can purchase these types of mowers which hold grass chopped into tiny pieces and blown into the turf, where the clippings decompose rapidly without adding to a thatch buildup. In fact, grass clippings return 20 percent of their nitrogen to the soil.

Variable opening mulchers on ride on equipment provide another innovation to help homeowners. By recycling lawn debris right now, homeowners can reduce the volume of throwaway material by up to 20 percent and extend the life of a community’s landfill. In return, recycled lawn materials are a rich source of nutrients.



When planting a tree in your landscape, the first step is to select the type of tree that is appropriate for your location. Will the species you select grown in the environmental battlefield known as St. Louis?

Consider the soil conditions and available space. Be sure to look up for overhead wires. Also consider the intended purpose of the tree. Do you want it to provide shade, showy flowers, brilliant fall colors, or all of the above? Take some time to do your homework so that a thoughtful decision can be made. This is the most important, but often overlooked, decision you will make.

Many lists have been published that describe trees recommended for our area. There is no single tree, or even a short list, that provides a thoughtful review of what can work for you. Every site is unique and has its own list of desirable trees.


Balled and burlapped (B&B) trees are dug with roots covered by the soil they were growing in, and wrapped in burlap. Many roots are cut and removed during the digging process at the nursery. Keep the root ball moist to minimize further stress to the tree. This method is the most reliable for large tree survival.

Potted trees are dug with the roots and soil intact and then placed into a container. Keep soil moist to minimize stress and be sure to remove the container before planting. Check to be sure the tree has not spent too much time in the container. If so, the roots may grow in a circular pattern inside the container.

Container grown trees are grown from seed or cuttings directly in a pot or container. As with potted trees, check to be sure roots have not encircled inside the container.

Bare rooted trees are sold with the soil removed from the root system. Transportation is easier, but the risk of drying out the roots is high. Keep roots wrapped with sphagnum moss or other material to minimize drying out.

When you inspect trees at the nursery, look for the following characteristics:
• A straight trunk with no wounds. Trunks should be single stem if that is the characteristic of the species.
• Vigorous growth on branches. Firm healthy buds.
• Well proportioned height to width ratio. A shape typical of the species.
• Moist root ball or soil in container.

Be aware of what it will take to get a tree home and planted. The average weight of an eight to 10 foot tall deciduous tree and its root ball is 150 pounds! Trees this size can be very awkward to move. Enough damage may be caused in transporting the tree and planting it, to warrant hiring a professional to handle the task for you.


Select an appropriate location for your tree before purchase and planting. Review local ordinances that may dictate what you plant and where you can plant it. Use common sense and be aware of what the mature size and shape of your tree will be. Give the tree plenty of room to grow without obstructions (overhead wires, overhangs, and other trees).

Spring is the most popular time of the year for planting trees. However, many species of trees will survive better if planted in the fall or early winter. Summer planting is possible if a reliable watering program is followed.

Keep trees cool and moist (soil and roots) before planting. Gather all equipment needed before you start the job.

Digging the hole seems to be the least technical part of planting a tree. However, a poorly dug hole can spell disaster even if a healthy tree is selected. A planting hole should be at least 50% wider than the root ball. Do not dig any deeper than necessary to cove the root ball. It’s actually better to plant higher than lower. This method allows adequate room for roots to grow laterally (outward), and supports the weight of the tree. Trees should never be planted too deep or too shallow. Planting too deep will starve developing roots of oxygen, while planting too shallow may expose roots to drying winds.

Poorly drained soils may dictate the use of some type of drainage system. Wrapping the root ball with perforated flexible plastic pipe, and draining the pipe if possible on sloped sites. On level sites, planting on a small berm will keep the tree out of saturated soil.

Place the tree in the hole in an upright position. Check it from several angles! If you know the history of the tree, place the tree in the hole to reorient the north facing side of the tree. This could help minimize future sunscald on thin barked trees.

In St. Louis, we highly recommend backfilling with a combination of the existing soil and compost. We recommend a 50/50 combination of compost to soil.

Adding fertilizer when you plant the tree is not recommended. If you feel you must fertilizer, use only products indicated as a “starter fertilizer” or “root stimulators”, and follow the label directions. Over fertilizing can burn roots and do more harm than good.

Place mulch around the tree approximately three to four inches deep. The mulch should cover an area two to three times the width of the root ball. Organic mulch, such as shredded or chipped wood, can stabilize soil moisture and temperatures. Minimizing extremes in moisture and temperature can greatly increase the overall health of a tree.

Staking trees may be necessary for the first year. The additional support allows roots to grow without disturbance. Guy wires can be attached directly to the ground, or to adjacent stakes that have been driven into the ground. Protect the tree from guy wires with rubber hose or other materials. DO NOT nail boards to the trunk for support.

Trunk protection will minimize the risk from sunscalding. Wrap the main trunk with tree wrap paper in the late fall and remove it after leaves emerge in the spring. If rabbits and mice are a problem, loosely wrap wire mesh around the base of the trunk to protect it during the winter months.

Prune newly planted trees to remove any branches that are damaged or crossing. Improve branch structure by evenly spacing branches up and down the trunk. Do not remove more than one third of the branches at one time. Over pruning will stimulate an abundance of new growth that may be undesirable. Most trees purchased from nurseries have been pruned to improve form.

When trees are dug from the nursery and transplanted into a new location, they suffer what experts call “transplant shock”. Typically, 95% of the absorbing roots are lost when a tree is dug. Trying to survive on five percent of the original root system is difficult and make the tree more prone to attacks by insects and disease.

Watering is the single most important factor in minimizing transplant shock once the tree is in the ground. Realize that the tree only has five percent of its original roots, and absorption of water will be slow. Use soil from the planting hole to form a ring that will create a basin around the newly planted tree. After water fills the basin, it will soak into the soil. Mulching will preserve soil moisture under this basin. Fill the basin at least once a week, if sufficient rainfall has not occurred. Be careful not to overwater. Use your finger to check soil that is actually part of the root ball. If it is dry, you need to water.

I am now on an expidition to the westward, with Capt. Lewis and Capt. Clark.....through the interior partsof North America. We are to ascend the Missouri River with a boat as far as it is navigable and then to go by land, to the western ocean, if nothing prevents...will write next winter if I have a chance. John Ordway, April 8, 1804 Wood River, Ill.

Greenscape Gardens

Sunday, December 26, 2004

View of the water feature at first entrance at Greenscape Gardens. View is looking northwesterly towards the intersection of Dougherty Ferry & Barrett Station Rd. The pond was constructed in September of 2004 to replace the fountain that was orginally in this area. The pond is three feet deep in the middle and the waterfall is approximately one foot tall cascading over a small series of ledges. The waterfalls creates a very tranquil sound and actually drowns out the traffic from the intersection. The stones were placed to replicate a natural ambiance and was tastefully landscape with perennial and annual flowers. Note the palm tree which is one of the trademarks for Greenscape Gardens. Regretfully, the tropicals had to be relocated inside the heated greenhouses since mid November. Today the pond has a light covering of ice to reflect the cold temperatures of the past week. Ice stairs have formed on the waterfall and the koi and goldfish appear ghostlike under the surface. But already the daylight hours are getting longer and spring will once again herald a new year of gardening.

Greenscape Gardens

The Indians have not visited Fort Mandan for the last two days which is considered an odd occurence. The trader, Larocque, recruits Charbonneau for some translation assistance.



Tired of planting and replanting in the shady area of the yard? After several attempts to grow vegetation in the shade, the only alternative answer is groundcovers. These plants grow densely, discourage competition from weeds and other plants and reduce potential erosion. Groundcovers can also be used in places where it is difficult to grow and maintain grass (steep slopes, heavy shade). Groundcovers can create unique textures and colors in the garden.

Traditionally, ajuga, euyonmous, ivy, pachysandra, and periwinkle have been ground covers of choice for most gardeners. However, many perennial varieties can be used because of their hardiness and ability to cover the ground and should be considered as potential groundcover.

Plant Spacing

The length of time it takes for groundcover to become established depends upon the variety, the spacing of the plants and, of course, the quality of the specific site---soil, moisture and sunlight. You may wish to plant groundcover plants closer together in small sites that command a lot of attention. For reason of economy, you probably will install plants farther apart in larger areas.

The following guide will help you estimate the number of plants per square foot that will be needed for a given area:

Spacing Plants per square feet

4” 9.1
6” 4.0
8” 2.3
10” 1.4

For example, if you have a bed that is 15 feet long and 5 feet wide (75 sq.ft.) and you want to plant on 6” centers, multiply 75 x 4 = 300 plants.

Soil Preparation and Mulch

Soils that drains well and has good texture and a generous amount of organic matter is a must, if you want to have a top quality garden. Prepare the soil as you would for any garden bed, tilling it to a depth of eight inches or more. Add compost, well rotted cow or horse manure, shredded leaves, sphagnum peat moss or other organic matter and work it into the soil.

For soil that is basically quite good, add a 2” layer of organic matter (.5 cubic yard per 100 square feet). For clay soil, add a 6” layer of organic matter (2 cu. Yards per 100 square feet). Ideally, the organic matter should be worked into the soil in three separate additions, a total of four tillings. For the final tilling, add nutrients as indicated by a soil test.

The final step in preparing a bed for groundcover is to apply a 3” to 4” layer of shredded bark mulch. This final dressing will help conserve moisture and moderate the soil temperature. Water the bed thoroughly. Never put tender plants into dry mulch or soil.

Installation of Plants

If possible, choose a cool, cloudy day to install plants, especially in a sunny site. If exposure to the strong sun can’t be avoided, protect the plants with light waterings. Water the plants thoroughly while they are still in their pots or flats. Plant them into moist, mulch covered soil. Remove plants from the containers and correctly install the plants. The key to successful transplanting is to protect the plant from shock as much as possible. Planting shock is caused mostly by too much exposure of root masses to air and sun. The quicker you get the plants out of their containers and back into the soil, the better. Once you are through planting, water the bed thoroughly. Check the soil for moisture level every few days and water as needed.



A tree is worth $196,250.00 according to professor T.M. Das of the University of Calcutta. A tree living for 50 years will generate $31,250 worth of oxygen, provide $62,000 worth of air pollution control, increase soil fertility and control soil erosion control to the tune of 31,250, recycle $37,500 worth of water and provide home for animals worth $31,250. This figure does not include the value of the fruits, lumber or beauty derived from trees. Just another sensible reason to care for our landscape and trees.



A man was driving home late one afternoon, and was speeding. He noticed a police car with its red lights on in his rear view mirror.

So he floors it and the race is on. The cars are racing down the highway -- 60, 70, 80, 90 miles an hour. Finally, as his speedometer passes 100, he figures "what the heck," and gives up. He pulls over to the curb.

The police officer gets out of his cruiser and approaches the car. He leans down and says "listen mister, I've had a really lousy day, and I just want to go home. Give me a good excuse and I'll let you go."

The man thought for a moment and said..."Three weeks ago, my wife ran off with a police officer. When I saw your cruiser in my rear view mirror, I thought you were that officer and you were trying to give her back to me"!